Sunday, 13 January 2019

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE



In the era of science and technology, there is much hype about Artificial Intelligence. Everything is superseding by Artificial Intelligence, in every possible sphere of work. To match the pace of this era, we must know what actually Artificial Intelligence, i.e. AI, is all about.   
Artificial Intelligence is the field of computer science, which enables the computer to behave, think, act, and respond as human being. Why is it called so is another point of interest. Intelligence means perceiving environment and taking actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Hence, giving this to ability to machine artificially, calls it as Artificial Intelligence.
AI development is elevating its execution majorly in following areas:
·        Gaming − AI plays crucial role in strategic games such as chess, poker, tic-tac-toe, etc., where machine thinks of large number of possible positions based on heuristic knowledge.
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·        Natural Language Processing − It is used to interact with the computer that understands natural language spoken by humans.
·        Expert Systems − There are some applications which can integrate machine, software, and special information to impart reasoning and advising. They also provide explanation and advice to the users.
·        Vision Systems − These systems can understand, interpret, and comprehend visual input on the computer. For example,
o   A spying aeroplane can take a photograph, which can be used to figure out spatial information or map of the areas.
o   Doctor uses clinical expert system to diagnose the patient.
o   Police uses computer software that recognizes the face of criminal with the stored portrait made by forensic artist.
·        Speech Recognition − Some intelligent systems can hear and comprehend the language in terms of sentences and their meanings while a human talks to it. It handles different accents, slang words, noise in the background, change in human’s noise due to cold, etc.
·        Handwriting Recognition − The handwriting recognition software can read the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus. It recognizes the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.
·         Intelligent Robots − Robots perform the tasks given by a human. They have sensors to notice physical information from the world like lightweight, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure. They have economical processors, multiple sensors and big memory, to exhibit intelligence. In addition, they're capable of learning from their mistakes and that they will adapt to the new atmosphere.
AI is mainly categorized into 3 categories:
  1. ANI: Artificial Narrow Intelligence
    It is considered as weak intelligence, which shows intelligence lower than human.
    E.g. SIRI, Alexa, any speech recognition device.
  2. AGI: Artificial General Intelligence
    It is considered as Strong intelligence, which shows intelligence similar to human.
    E.g. AlphaGo
  3. ASI: Artificial Superintelligence
    This will be smarter than human intelligence, which we can only imagine for now. It will take decades to achieve this point.
    E.g. Any creation that can write its own novel/book.

It is clear that this technology has life changing advantages like automation of mundane tasks, accuracy and speed in tedious data related tasks, and it will make our life smooth. But, just like any other technology, it has unfurl dark side too. It is estimated that AI can be a threat to humanity if it progresses intensely. Some also believe that AI, unlike other technological revolutions till date, will create a risk of mass unemployment as it is taking place of human work in wide areas. Moreover, if Artificial Super-intelligence achieved, which can be visualized as “Robots in Action”, then it may take control over humans and humanity can be extinct.
We are just starting to explore this area and transcending towards the better and better every minute. AI has numerous possibilities of unimagined tremendous development that time will unfold for us to have a better life. Till then we can adore the privileges of AI.

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